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1、系统环境,必要知识

#cat /etc/redhat-release 
CentOS Linux release 7.5.1804 (Core) 
#uname -r
3.10.0-862.3.2.el7.x86_64

暂时关闭防护墙,关闭selinux:

#systemctl stop firewalld.service
#setenforce 0
#getenforce 
Permissive

准备知识:

django:一个基于python的开源web框架。

uWSGI:一个基于自有的uwsgi协议,wsgi协议和http服务协议的web网关

nginx:高性能的代理web服务器

wsgi.py:django项目自带的wsgi接口文件(位于:项目/项目名/wsgi.py)

整个项目流程:

首先客户端通过浏览器访问服务器资源;nginx作为对外服务的端口(80),nginx接收到客户端http请求后会解包分析,如果是静态文件就去配置的静态文件中查找资源并返回给客户端,如果是动态资源,nginx就通过配置文件将请求传递给uwsgi处理,并转发给uwsgi,wsgi根据请求调用django工程的文件和函数,处理后django将返回值交给wsgi,wsgi将返回值进行打包,转发给uWSGI,uWSGI接收到数据后转发给nginx,最终返回给客户端。

2、安装python3.6.5

(1)安装python依赖包

yum -y install zlib-devel bzip2-devel openssl-devel ncurses-devel sqlite-devel readline-devel tk-devel gdbm-devel db4-devel libpcap-devel xz-devel python-devel

(2)安装python

#wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.6.5/Python-3.6.5.tgz
#mkdir -p /usr/local/python356
#tar zxvf Python-3.6.5.tgz
#cd Python-3.6.5
#./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python356
#make
#make install
#ln -s /usr/local/python356/bin/python3 /usr/local/bin/python3
#ln -s /usr/local/python356/bin/pip3 /usr/local/bin/pip3
#pip3 install --upgrade pip  #更新pip
#pip3 install ipython  #安装ipython方便调试

测试安装是否正常:

#python3 -V
Python 3.6.5

#pip3 -V
pip 10.0.1 from /usr/local/python356/lib/python3.6/site-packages/pip (python 3.6)

 

3、安装uWSGI

使用python的pip工具包安装:

#pip3 install uwsgi

#ln -s /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi /usr/local/bin/uwsgi  #建立软链接
#uwsgi --version  #检查安装成功
2.0.17

建立uWSGI的配置文件,在django项目中建立uwsgi.ini文件:

[uwsgi]
socket = 127.0.0.1:9090
chdir = /djproject/mysite
module = mysite.wsgi    #这里填的是相对路径
master = true
processes = 2
threads = 2
max-requests = 2000
vacuum = true
daemonize = /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.log
stats = 127.0.0.1:9001
post-buffering = 65535
buffer-size = 65535
harakiri-verbose = true
harakiri = 300
uid = nginx
pidfile = /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.pid

参数说明:

socket:指定监听地址和端口

chdir:指定工程的绝对路径,如Django的项目路径

module:指定web应用的入口模块,如Django项目下的wsgi.py接口文件

master:启动主进程

processes:启动进程数

threads:启动线程数

max-requests:最大请求数

daemonize:指定uWSGI日志文件路径

stats:指定状态查询端口,如:127.0.0.1:9001

wsgi-file:指定启动的文件

post-buffering:设置缓冲区

buffer-size:设置缓冲区文件大小

harakiri-verbose:设置超时true为开启

harakiri:设置超时时间

uid、gid:设置用户和组

pidfile:指定启动时的pid文件路径

uwsgi信号控制:

HUP     :优雅的重新加载所有进程和配置,同(--reload)一样

TERM  :强制重新加载主进程和配置

 INT  :立即杀死整个uWSGI;同于:--stop

QUIT  :立即杀死真个uWSGI

重新启动实例:

#kill -HUP `cat /tmp/project-mast.pid`

#uwsgi --reload /tmp/project-master.pid

还可以在python程序中使用uwsgi.reload()重新加载

停止服务器:

#uwsgi --stop /tmp/project-master.pid

#kill -INT `cat /tmp/project-master.pid`

编写启动脚本:

#vim /etc/init.d/uwsgi 

#!/bin/bash
#this is uwsgi server script

. /etc/init.d/functions

uwsgi=/usr/local/bin/uwsgi
uwsgi_pid=/djangoproject/mysite/uwsig.pid
uwsgi_conf=/djangoproject/mysite/uwsigconf.ini
uwsgi_pn=`ps -ef|grep -v "grep"|grep -c "uwsgi"`
ERVAL=0
start(){
    $uwsgi --ini $uwsgi_conf >& /dev/unll
    ERVAL=$?
    if [ $ERVAL -eq 0 ];then
        action "uwsgid starting ..." /bin/true
    else
        action "uwsgid start is error" /bin/false
    fi
}

stop(){
    $uwsgi --stop $uwsgi_pid >& /dev/null
    ERVAL=$?
    if [ $ERVAL -eq 0 ];then
        action "uwsgid stoping ..." /bin/true
    else
        action "uwsgid stop is error" /bin/false
    fi
}


case "$1" in
    start)
        if [ $uwsgi_pn -ge 5 ];then
            action "uwsgi is running!" /bin/false
        else
            start
            ERVAL=0
        fi
        ;;
    stop)
        if [ $uwsgi_pn -ge 5 ];then
            stop
            ERVAL=0
        else
            action "uwsgi no running!" /bin/false
        fi
        ;;
    reload)
        if [ $uwsgi_pn -ge 5 ];then
            $uwsgi --reload $uwsgi_pid >&/dev/null
            ERVAL=$?
            [ $ERVAL -eq 0 ] && action "uwsgi reloading ..." /bin/true
        else
            action "uwsgi reload error" /bin/false
        fi
        ;;
    restart)
        stop
        sleep 2
        start
        ;;
    *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|reload|status}"
        ERVAL=2
esac
exit $ERVAL

 centOS7 system系统服务脚本:

#cat uwsgi.service 
[Unit]
Description=uwsgi service
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=forking
PIDFile=/run/uwsgi.pid
ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/rm -f /run/uwsgi.pid
ExecStart=/usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
KillSignal=SIGQUIT
TimeoutStopSec=5
KillMode=process
PrivateTmp=true

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

测试服务:

#uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini    #启动服务

#ps -ef|grep "uwsgi"   #查看进程
root     103596      1  2 16:02 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
root     103598 103596  0 16:02 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
root     103599 103596  0 16:02 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini

#netstat -lntp|grep "uwsgi"
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9090          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      103596/uwsgi        
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9001          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      103596/uwsgi 

看上面进程是少了一个主进程,通过systemctl 查看就清楚了:

#systemctl status -l uwsgi.service 
● uwsgi.service - uwsgi service
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/uwsgi.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since 五 2018-05-25 16:02:06 CST; 4min 14s ago
  Process: 103593 ExecStart=/usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 103591 ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/rm -f /run/uwsgi.pid (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 103596 (uwsgi)
   CGroup: /system.slice/uwsgi.service
           ├─103596 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
           ├─103598 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
           └─103599 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini

5月 25 16:02:06 ZPY systemd[1]: Starting uwsgi service...
5月 25 16:02:06 ZPY uwsgi[103593]: [uWSGI] getting INI configuration from /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
5月 25 16:02:06 ZPY systemd[1]: PID file /run/uwsgi.pid not readable (yet?) after start.
5月 25 16:02:06 ZPY systemd[1]: Started uwsgi service.

 

4、安装nginx

这里采用yum安装nginx:

yum -y install nginx

配置nginx与uwsgi代理:

user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;

# Load dynamic modules. See /usr/share/nginx/README.dynamic.
include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;

events {
    worker_connections 1024;
}

http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;

    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;

    # Load modular configuration files from the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory.
    # See http://nginx.org/en/docs/ngx_core_module.html#include
    # for more information.
    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name localhost;
    charset     utf-8;
    access_log      /var/log/nginx/nginx_access.log main;
    error_log       /var/log/nginx/nginx_error.log;
    client_max_body_size 75M;


    location /static {
        alias /djproject/mysite/static;  #指定django的静态文件
        }

    location / {
        include     /etc/nginx/uwsgi_params;  #加载uwsgi模块
        uwsgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9090;   #所有请求转到9090端口交给uwsgi处理
        }
    }

}

 

5、安装Django

#pip3 install django

#ln -s /usr/local/python356/bin/django-admin /usr/local/bin/django-admin

创建项目:

#django-admin startproject mysite

创建app:

#cd mysite/
#django-admin startapp app01

先建立个测试文件:

#cat settings.py
ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['192.168.146.139']  #添加本地IP,外网访问

#cat urls.py 
from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from app01 import views   #导入app01视图
urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('',views.index,name='index'),  #添加路由
]

#cat ../app01/views.py
from django.shortcuts import render
from django.http import HttpResponse

# Create your views here.

def index(request):    #添加视图函数
  return HttpResponse('hello world')

重新加载uwsgi:

#uwsgi --reload uwsgi.pid

访问:http://192.168.146.139  能显示“hello world”说明环境部署成功了。

 

(1)配置Django模版文件的使用:

首先必须在项目的setting文件中配置templates模版文件的搜索路径;找到TEMPLATES项,在DIRS中写入模版搜索路径:

'DIRS': [os.path.join(BASE_DIR,'templates')],   #此处为项目目录下的templates

配置home路由,在视图中使用render渲染模版文件,然后建立模版文件进行测试。

#vim app01/views.py
def home(request):
  return render(request,'app01/home.html')

#vim mysite/urls.py
urlpatterns = [
    path('home/',views.home),
]

#mkdir -p templates/app01
#vim templates/app01/home.html
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>test</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>this is test file</h1>
</body>
</html>

测试:http://192.168.146.139/home

(2)配置djando静态文件加载

首先在django的项目文件中,打开setting.py,找到STATIC_URL填写搜索路径

#STATIC_URL = '/static/'   #在linux下这两种写法都可以,在windows系统下必须两种都要写上,不知何解!
STATICFILES_DIRS = (
        os.path.join(BASE_DIR,'static'),
)

#在模块中引入静态文件时,必须是/static,此静态文件在项目下面
<script src="/static/jquery-3.3.1.js"></script>

 

6、MySQL安装配置

#下载二进制包安装
wget https://downloads.mysql.com/archives/get/file/mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz
tar zxvf mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz
mv mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64 /usr/local/mysql-5.5.32
ln -s /usr/local/mysql-5.5.32 /usr/local/mysql
useradd -s /sbin/nologin -M mysql
mkdir /mysql/data -p
chown -R mysql.mysql /mysql/data
cd /usr/local/mysql
#添加配置文件和启动脚本
cp support-files/my-small.cnf /etc/my.cnf
cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
#初始化数据库
./scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/mysql/data/
echo $?

#修改启动脚本路径
sed -i 's#^basedir=#basedir=/usr/local/mysql#g' /etc/init.d/mysqld
sed -i 's#^datadir=#datadir=/mysql/data#g' /etc/init.d/mysqld
chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysqld
#启动和关闭MySQL
/etc/init.d/mysqld start
/etc/init.d/mysqld stop
#方法2:
/usr/local/mysql/bin/msyql_safe &    #后台启动
mysqladmin shutdown  #优雅关闭MySQL服务
#查看运行状态
#netstat -lntup|grep 3306
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3306            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      70099/mysqld        

#添加系统自启动
chkconfig --add mysqld
chkconfig --level 345 mysqld on
#添加环境变量
echo "PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH" >> /etc/profile
source /etc/profile

#修改初始化密码
mysqladmin -uroot password '123456'
#建立一个数据库,后面要用到
MySQL [(none)]> create database django;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

(1)配置Django链接MySQL:

在setting中,Django默认使用的是sqlite数据库:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
        'NAME': os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'db.sqlite3'),
    }
}

修改成MySQL数据库配置:

DATABASES = {
        'default':{
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
        'NAME': 'django',
        'USER': 'root',
        'PASSWORD': '123.com',
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'PORT': '3306',
        }
}

ENGINE : 指定数据库驱动,不同的数据库这个字段不同,下面是常见的集中数据库的ENGINE的写法:

django.db.backends.postgresql  # PostgreSQL  
django.db.backends.mysql       # mysql  
django.db.backends.sqlite3     # sqlite  
django.db.backends.oracle      # oracle 
NAME: 指定的数据库名,如果是sqlite的话,就需要填数据库文件的绝对位置
USER: 数据库登录的用户名,mysql一般都是root
PASSWORD:登录数据库的密码,必须是USER用户所对应的密码
HOST: 由于一般的数据库都是C/S结构的,所以得指定数据库服务器的位置,我们一般数据库服务器和客户端都是在一台主机上面,所以一般默认都填127.0.0.1
PORT:数据库服务器端口,mysql默认为3306
HOST和PORT都可以不填,使用默认的配置,但是如果你有更改默认配置的话,就需要填入更改后的
配置完这,下面就需要装python连接mysql数据库的驱动程序,首先,需要安装mysql的开发包
#yum install mysql-devel   #安装MySQL插件
#pip3 install mysqlclient    #安装MySQL驱动

(2)通过template模版与MySQL实现简单表单交互

在app目录下的models文件中创建model类用于生成数据表:

#cat app01/models.py 
from django.db import models

# Create your models here.

class userinfo(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    age = models.IntegerField()
    salary = models.IntegerField()

设置setting.py文件,将app加入到INSTALLED_APPS中:

 INSTALLED_APPS = [
        'django.contrib.admin',
        'django.contrib.auth',
        'django.contrib.contenttypes',
        'django.contrib.sessions',
        'django.contrib.messages',
        'django.contrib.staticfiles',
        'app01'
        ]

根据model类创建数据库表:

#cmd进入django项目路径下
#python manage.py migrate #创建表结构,非model类的其他表,django所需要的
#python manage.py makemigrations app名 #做数据迁移的准备
如:python manage.py makemigrations app01 app01是项目中的app名字
#python manage.py migrate # 执行迁移,创建medel表结构

在templages下建立模版文件:

#cat templates/app01/home.html 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>test</title>
    <style>
    body{
        background-image: url('/static/78556.jpg');
    }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
<form action="" method="post">   #提交数据给自身
      <p><input type="text" name="username"/></p>
      <p><input type="text" name="password"/></p>
      <p><input type="text" name="age"/></p>
      <p><input type="text" name="salary"/></p>
      <p><input type="submit" value="提交"/></p>
</form>
<table border="1">
   <thead>
       <tr>
                <th>用户名</th>
                <th>密码</th>
                <th>年龄</th>
                <th>工资</th>
       </tr>
   </thead>
            <tbody>
                {% for item in data %} #循环获取传入字典数据
                <tr>
                    <td>{{item.name}}</td>
                    <td>{{item.password}}</td>
                    <td>{{item.age}}</td>
                    <td>{{item.salary}}</td>
                </tr>
                {% endfor %}
            </tbody>
        </table>


<h1>this is test file</h1>
<script src="/static/jquery-3.3.1.js"></script>
</body>
</html>

在app下新建视图函数,与数据库交互:

#cat app01/views.py

from django.shortcuts import render
from django.http import HttpResponse
from app01 import models   #引入数据类模版
# Create your views here.

def home(request):   #创建home函数处理请求
  if request.method == "POST":   #判断是否为post提交
    #print(request.POST)
    models.userinfo.objects.create(     #提交表单的数据到数据库
    name = request.POST['username'],
    password = request.POST['password'],
    age = request.POST['age'],
    salary = request.POST['salary'],
)
  data = models.userinfo.objects.all()   #获取数据库数据
  return render(request,'app01/home.html',{'data':data}) #渲染模版文件并传递数据库表给模版

#此处是以post方式提交,需要修改Django项目setting设置中的MIDDLEWARE,将csrf安全机制注销了:

MIDDLEWARE = [
    'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
    #'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
]

#建立路由:

#cat mysite/urls.py
from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from app01 import views
urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('home/',views.home),
]

重新启动uWSGI:

#uwsgi --stop uwsgi.pid
#uwsgi --ini uwsgi.ini

#浏览器访问:http://192.168.146.139/home

#提交数据到数据库后并返回给浏览器客户端

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------end