lehoso 阅读(32) 评论(0)

前文

hive3.1.2 安装及其配置(本地模式和远程模式)

下载

1、下载hive包

Index of /dist/hive ()

wget hive-3.1.2/apache-hive-3.1.2-bin.tar.gz
#可选用清华镜像

2、修改其环境变量

vim /etc/profile
	#增加环境变量
	export HIVE_HOME=/export/servers/apache-hive-3.1.2-src
	export PATH=$PATH:$HIVE_HOME/bin
source /etc/profile

3、MySQL配置

为什么配置MySQL?

metastore是hive元数据的集中存放地
metastore默认使用内嵌的derby数据库作为存储引擎
Derby引擎的缺点:一次只能打开一个会话
使用Mysql作为外置存储引擎,多用户同时访问
Hive安装

内嵌模式:元数据保持在内嵌的Derby模式,只允许一个会话连接

本地独立模式:在本地安装MySQL,把元数据放到MySQL内

远程模式:元数据放置在远程的Mysql数据库。

hive只是个工具,包括它的数据分析,依赖于mapreduce,它的数据管理,依赖于外部系统

这一步其实不是必须的,因为Hive默认的metadata(元数据)是存储在Derby里面的,但是有一个弊端就是同一时间只能有一个Hive实例访问,这适合做开发程序时做本地测试。

Hive提供了增强配置,可将数据库替换成MySQL等关系型数据库,将存储数据独立出来在多个服务示例之间共享。

由此可见,你在哪路径下,执行hive指令,就在哪路径下生成metastore_db。建一套数据库文件,这样是极其不合适的,公司里每个人若不一样,则会显得非常混杂。导致员工之间无法公用交流。

为此,需公用的MySQL。

这也是为什么,在安装Hive时,也需要配置MySQL了。

Centos7 MySQL安装步骤:

1、设置MySQL源

首先,您需要在MySQL提供的系统中启用MySQL yum存储库。 根据您的操作系统版本执行以下命令之一,这里我们选择CentOS 7 / RHEL 7的源

###在CentOS 7 / RHEL 7系统上### 
rpm -Uvh 

###在CentOS 7 / RHEL 6系统上### 
rpm -Uvh 

2、安装MySQL Community Server

MySQL yum存储库包含用于多个MySQL版本的多个存储库配置。 因此,首先禁用mysql repo文件中的所有存储库

sed -i 's/enabled=1/enabled=0/' /etc/yum.repos.d/mysql-community.repo

启用centos mysql8版本

## CentOS & RedHat 版本
yum --enablerepo=mysql80-community install mysql-community-server
## Fedora Systems 版本
dnf --enablerepo=mysql80-community install mysql-community-server

3、启动MySQL服务

service mysqld start

使用Systemd

systemctl start mysqld.service

4、查找MySQL root密码

安装MySQL 8.0后,将为MySQL根用户创建一个临时密码。 您可以在日志文件中找到生成的临时密码。密码文件位置:/var/log/mysqld.log

grep "A temporary password" /var/log/mysqld.log

5、重置root密码

首次安装MySQL后,执行mysql_secure_installation命令以保护MySQL服务器,包含重置密码步骤

密码需要特殊要求,八位,大小写,特殊符号

mysql_secure_installation
Enter password for user root:

The existing password for the user account root has expired. Please set a new password.

New password:
Re-enter new password:

Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y

Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y

Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y

Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y

6、MySQL 服务加入开机启动项,并启动mysql进程

### Using Systemd
systemctl enable mysqld.service
systemctl restart mysqld.service

开放3306端口

如果服务器开启了防火墙,记得开启3306端口

systemctl enable iptables
systemctl start iptables
vim /etc/sysconfig/iptables
##规则中加入
-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 3306 -j ACCEPT
##重启防火墙
systemctl enable iptables.service
systemctl start iptables.service

7、登录MySQL

mysql -uroot -p

修改您的密码不满足当前的策略要求,可修改成简单密码

*# 查看密码策略* 
> mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';
+--------------------------------------+--------+
| Variable_name                        | Value  |
+--------------------------------------+--------+
| validate_password.check_user_name    | ON     |
| validate_password.dictionary_file    |        |
| validate_password.length             | 8      |
| validate_password.mixed_case_count   | 1      |
| validate_password.number_count       | 1      |
| validate_password.policy             | MEDIUM |
| validate_password.special_char_count | 1      |
+--------------------------------------+--------+

MySQL8密码策略
1)、validate_password_length 固定密码的总长度;
2)、validate_password_dictionary_file 指定密码验证的文件路径;
3)、validate_password_mixed_case_count 整个密码中至少要包含大/小写字母的总个数;
4)、validate_password_number_count 整个密码中至少要包含阿拉伯数字的个数;
5)、validate_password_policy 指定密码的强度验证等级,默认为 MEDIUM;
取值:
0/LOW:只验证长度;
1/MEDIUM:验证长度、数字、大小写、特殊字符;
2/STRONG:验证长度、数字、大小写、特殊字符、字典文件;

6)、validate_password_special_char_count 整个密码中至少要包含特殊字符的个数;

set global validate_password.policy=0;
set global validate_password.length=1;

8、配置mysql允许远程访问

#登录
mysql -u root -p
#查看用户表
select user,host,authentication_string from mysql.user;
#切换数据库
use mysql;
#更新用户表 :
update user set host='%' where user='root';
#配置mysql允许远程访问
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'%';
#强制刷新权限
flush privileges;

9、附mysql常用命令:

登录mysql

mysql -u username -p

启动mysql

systemctl start mysqld.service

结束mysql

systemctl stop mysqld.service

重启mysql

systemctl restart mysqld.service

开机自启

systemctl enable mysqld.service

4、将MySQL的JDBC驱动拷贝到Hive的lib目录下

我这里选用的8.0.27自己可以选择版本去下载

[MySQL官网下载驱动](MySQL :: Download Connector/J)

#Platform Independent
wget 
#解压文件到Hive的lib目录下

5、配置hive文件

cd /export/servers/apache-hive-3.1.2-src/conf

把初始化的配置文件 复制一份出来 并且改名

cp hive-env.sh.template hive-env.sh
cp hive-default.xml.template hive-site.xml
cp hive-log4j2.properties.template hive-log4j2.properties
cp hive-exec-log4j2.properties.template hive-exec-log4j2.properties

6、配置hive-env.sh

vi hive-env.sh

文件末尾处

# Set HADOOP_HOME to point to a specific hadoop install directory
export HADOOP_HOME=/export/servers/hadoop-3.3.1 #hadoop安装路径

# Hive Configuration Directory can be controlled by:
export HIVE_CONF_DIR=/export/servers/apache-hive-3.1.2-src/conf #hive路径

# Folder containing extra libraries required for hive compilation/execution can be controlled by:
export HIVE_AUX_JARS_PATH=/export/servers/apache-hive-3.1.2-src/lib #hivejar包路径

配置hive-site.xml文件
首先使用hadoop创建3个文件夹

hdfs dfs -mkdir -p /user/hive/warehouse
hadoop fs -mkdir -p /user/hive/tmp
hadoop fs -mkdir -p /user/hive/log

修改文件夹权限

hadoop fs -chmod -R 777 /user/hive/warehouse
hadoop fs -chmod -R 777 /user/hive/tmp
hadoop fs -chmod -R 777 /user/hive/log

7、配置Metastore到MySQL

在标签加入下面配置:

vim hive-site.xml

在$HIVE_HOME/conf修改新建hive-site.xml文件,根据自己的情况更在主机名,mysql的用户名和密码

<configuration>
<!-- jdbc连接的URL -->
    <property>
        <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL</name>
        <value>jdbc:mysql://hadoop1:3306/metastore?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true&amp;useSSL=false&amp;serverTimezone=GMT</value>
</property>

    <!-- jdbc连接的Driver-->
    <property>
        <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionDriverName</name>
        <value>com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver</value>
        <!-- <value>com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver</value> -->
</property>

        <!-- jdbc连接的username-->
    <property>
        <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionUserName</name>
        <value>root</value>
    </property>

    <!-- jdbc连接的password -->
    <property>
        <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionPassword</name>
        <value>000000</value>
    </property>

    <property>
        <name>system:java.io.tmpdir</name>
        <value>/export/servers/data/hive/tmp</value>
        <description/>
    </property>
</configuration>

注意: &amp;代表&

<configuration>
    <!--以下可选作,建议Hive3.x不要用-->
    <!-- Hive默认在HDFS的工作目录 -->
    <property>
        <name>hive.metastore.warehouse.dir</name>
        <value>/user/hive/warehouse</value>
    </property>
    
   <!-- Hive元数据存储的验证 -->
    <property>
        <name>hive.metastore.schema.verification</name>
        <value>false</value>
    </property>
   
    <!-- 元数据存储授权  -->
    <property>
        <name>hive.metastore.event.db.notification.api.auth</name>
        <value>false</value>
    </property>
    <!-- 指定存储元数据要连接的地址 -->
    <property>
        <name>hive.metastore.uris</name>
        <value>thrift://hadoop2:9083</value>
    </property>
    <!-- 指定hiveserver2连接的host -->
    <property>
        <name>hive.server2.thrift.bind.host</name>
        <value>hadoop2</value>
    </property>
 
    <!-- 指定hiveserver2连接的端口号 -->
    <property>
        <name>hive.server2.thrift.port</name>
        <value>10000</value>
    </property>
</configuration>

报错原因1:

1、Jar包冲突

因为跟hadoop的jar包存在冲突,主要有两个jar包冲突,一个log4j-slf4j-impl-2.10.0.jar跟hadoop冲突,可以删除,我这里就打个标记弃用。

mv $HIVE_HOME/lib/log4j-slf4j-impl-2.10.0.jar $HIVE_HOME/lib/log4j-slf4j-impl-2.10.0.bak

另一个时guava-19.0.jar,跟hadoop里面的guava-27.0-jre.jar冲突,采用高版本替换低版本的方式。

cp $HADOOP_HOME/share/hadoop/common/lib/guava-27.0-jre.jar $HIVE_HOME/lib

rm $HIVE_HOME/lib/guava-19.0.jar

报错原因2:

hive-site.xml配置文件中,3278行(见报错记录第二行)有特殊字符

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.RuntimeException: com.ctc.wstx.exc.WstxParsingException: Illegal character entity: expansion character (code 0x8
at [row,col,system-id]: [3278,96,"file:/export/servers/apache-hive-3.1.2-bin/conf/hive-site.xml"]

[root@hadoop1 apache-hive-3.1.2-bin]# schematool -dbType mysql -initSchema
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.RuntimeException: com.ctc.wstx.exc.WstxParsingException: Illegal character entity: expansion character (code 0x8
 at [row,col,system-id]: [3278,96,"file:/export/servers/apache-hive-3.1.2-bin/conf/hive-site.xml"]
        at org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration.loadResource(Configuration.java:3069)
        at org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration.loadResources(Configuration.java:3018)
        at org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration.loadProps(Configuration.java:2893)
        at org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration.addResourceObject(Configuration.java:1034)
        at org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration.addResource(Configuration.java:939)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hive.conf.HiveConf.initialize(HiveConf.java:5151)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hive.conf.HiveConf.<init>(HiveConf.java:5104)
        at org.apache.hive.beeline.HiveSchemaTool.<init>(HiveSchemaTool.java:96)
        at org.apache.hive.beeline.HiveSchemaTool.main(HiveSchemaTool.java:1473)
        at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
        at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62)
        at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
        at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:498)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.run(RunJar.java:323)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.main(RunJar.java:236)
Caused by: com.ctc.wstx.exc.WstxParsingException: Illegal character entity: expansion character (code 0x8
 at [row,col,system-id]: [3278,96,"file:/export/servers/apache-hive-3.1.2-bin/conf/hive-site.xml"]
        at com.ctc.wstx.sr.StreamScanner.constructWfcException(StreamScanner.java:634)
        at com.ctc.wstx.sr.StreamScanner.throwParseError(StreamScanner.java:504)
        at com.ctc.wstx.sr.StreamScanner.reportIllegalChar(StreamScanner.java:2469)
        at com.ctc.wstx.sr.StreamScanner.validateChar(StreamScanner.java:2416)
        at com.ctc.wstx.sr.StreamScanner.resolveCharEnt(StreamScanner.java:2382)
        at com.ctc.wstx.sr.StreamScanner.fullyResolveEntity(StreamScanner.java:1528)
        at com.ctc.wstx.sr.BasicStreamReader.nextFromTree(BasicStreamReader.java:2818)
        at com.ctc.wstx.sr.BasicStreamReader.next(BasicStreamReader.java:1121)
        at org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration$Parser.parseNext(Configuration.java:3373)
        at org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration$Parser.parse(Configuration.java:3159)
        at org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration.loadResource(Configuration.java:3052)
        ... 14 more

进入hive-site.xml文件,跳转到对应行,删除里面的&#8特殊字符即可

报错原因3:

问题 Exception in thread "main" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: .URISyntaxException: Relative

一、问题

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: .URISyntaxException: Relative path in absolute URI: ${system:java.io.tmpdir%7D/$%7Bsystem:user.name%7D
        at org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path.initialize(Path.java:254)
        at org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path.<init>(Path.java:212)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.createSessionDirs(SessionState.java:663)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.start(SessionState.java:586)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.beginStart(SessionState.java:553)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.run(CliDriver.java:750)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.main(CliDriver.java:686)
        at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
        at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62)
        at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
        at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:497)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.run(RunJar.java:234)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.main(RunJar.java:148)
Caused by: .URISyntaxException: Relative path in absolute URI: ${system:java.io.tmpdir%7D/$%7Bsystem:user.name%7D
        at .URI.checkPath(URI.java:1823)
        at .URI.<init>(URI.java:745)
        at org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path.initialize(Path.java:251)

二、解决

在hive下新建tmp文件:
mkdir iotmp
查看hive-site.xml:
查找xml中"system:java.io.tmpdir"的配置项,如果存在直接修改地址路径到自己新建的路径下。
不存在则加入配置:
 <property>
    <name>system:java.io.tmpdir</name>
    <value>xxxxxx</value>                                          自己新建的路径
    <description/>
 </property>
保存退出,重新启动hive成功。

8、下载connecor/J驱动

下载MySQL的java版本的驱动解压,放到hive/lib文件内

wget 
tar -zxvf mysql-connector-java-8.0.11.tar.gz
cd mysql-connector-java-8.0.11
chmod 777 mysql-connector-java-8.0.11.jar
cp mysql-connector-java-8.0.11.jar /usr/share/hive/lib/

9、远程服务

hadoop1服务安装好的Hive给hadoop2和hadoop3

scp -r apache-hive-3.1.2-bin/ hadoop2:/export/servers/
scp -r apache-hive-3.1.2-bin/ hadoop3:/export/servers/

hadoop1节点:

启动Hive中的hiveserver2节点

bin/hiveserver2

hadoop2节点/hive2节点

beeline> !connect jdbc:hive2://hadoop1:10000
#默认端口号是10000
Connecting to jdbc:hive2://hadoop1:10000
#输入账号密码
Enter username for jdbc:hive2://hadoop1:10000: root
Enter password for jdbc:hive2://hadoop1:10000: ******